Diabetes occurs due to fluctuation in the level of blood glucose level. Among all cases of Diabetes, 90% account for Type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 diabetes also known as Type 2 Mellitus Diabetes usually occurs in adults. Insulin resistance and high glucose level in the blood are the symptoms of Diabetes type 2.
Till now, the notion behind the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes is over-secretion of insulin by Beta cells of the pancreas. According to theory, when the body is in the process of becoming deaf to insulin, beta cells secrete more to insulin to compensate. Tough, there no theory to explain the cause of over-secretion of insulin by beta cells.
All these years, researchers have been trying to find the actual reason behind Type 2 diabetes. A few of them claim that environmental factors, obesity, genetics, and obesity are some of the contributing elements. Though, they were unaware of the exact reason.
Proton Leak Leads to the Development of Type 2 Mellitus Diabetes
A research was conducted by a team of researchers from David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA under the supervision of Orian Shirihai. Orion Shirihai happens to be a professor at the endocrinology and pharmacology department of the same organization. In the research, the team used pre-diabetic mice to observe the mechanism of insulin synthesis in the absence of glucose.
The team observed that in the case of pre-diabetic obese animals, Cyclophilin D or CypD induces ‘proton leak’. Proton leak is a phenomenon promoting insulin secretion when excess glucose is not present. Fatty acids control the entire mechanism. Fatty acids are usually incapable of triggering insulin secretion in the case of healthy animals. On the other hand, no excess secretion of insulin was found in obese mice due to the absence of CypD.
The same situation is related to humans as well. The fatty acids present in the case of obese humans cause the cells to secrete insulin in the absence of elevated glucose.
Further, the research would help in finding new ways to avoid insulin secretion, and hence treatment of diabetes. This also includes blocking of proton leak in the beta cells.