Presently, various hospitals and other healthcare institutions are facing a new, but rapidly evolving threat, known as hospital infections, which can prove to be highly perilous if not checked and managed properly. These hospital infections are also referred as hospital acquired infections (HAIs), nosocomial infections and healthcare associated infections (HCAIs). An infection can be referred as a nosocomial infection if it occurs in a hospitalized patient within 2 days of his admission or after 3 days of his discharge from the hospital. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 1.7 million hospital infections from different pathogenic microorganisms combined have been reported that killed approximately 99,000 individuals only in the U.S., in 2011.
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A wide range of nosocomial infections have been reported to occur within different healthcare settings globally. However, all commonly occurring nosocomial infections can be categorized into five major segments, namely, hospital acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infections, surgical site infections, gastrointestinal disorders and bloodstream infections. According to a study carried out by the WHO in 2013, it was found that among 100 hospitalized patients, seven patients in developed and 10 in developing nations acquire at least one form of HAI at any given time. ICU acquired infections were observed to be the major cause of mortality losses; its prevalence rate is two to three times higher in developing countries compared to developed countries due to lack of modern healthcare facilities and skilled nursing staff. Thus, high prevalence of these hospital infections will increase the demand for new and improved therapeutic drugs, which in turn will drive the growth of the hospital infection therapeutics market.
Multi-drug resistance is one of the most common causes of failure in treatment for bacterial infection and multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria have been increasingly found in case of hospital infections. Bacteria are the only species that can survive even after frequent exposure to one or more antibiotics and develop drug resistance. Such resistance developed in these species is related to the evolution and natural transformation into new generation of bacterial species with an improved and resistant DNA structure. Few major types of multi-drug resistant bacteria are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and MDR C. difficile. These species are increasingly found in various nosocomial infections. Thus, rising multi-drug resistance especially within a healthcare setting will render present line of anti-infective drugs ineffective; hence, will add to the growing demand for improved therapeutic drugs from the hospital infection therapeutic market.
However, despite increasing prevalence of various hospital acquired infections and rapidly increasing number of multi-drug resistant bacterial strains, the present line of pipeline drugs will tend to effectively manage those infections in the near future. Various pharmaceutical companies have considered HAIs as an individual category in therapeutic treatment classification. In the current scenario, some of the antimicrobial agents that are under late stage clinical trials are Tedizolid (Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc.), Dalvance (Durata Therapeutics, Inc.), Delafloxacin (Melinta Therapeutics), MK-3415A (developed by Merck & Co., Inc.), Ceftolozane/Tozobactum (Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc.), Surotomycin (Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc.), and Oritavancin (The Medicines Company). One of the drugs called Cubicin from Cubist Pharmaceuticals has shown its effectiveness in a range of hospital infections occurring worldwide. Thus, many of these pipeline drugs promise effective management of various HAIs that are occurring globally on a large scale.
Major companies in the global hospital infection therapeutics market are Actavis plc, AstraZeneca plc, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Bayer AG, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Merck & Co., Inc., Pfizer, Inc., and Sanofi.